To take a picture of this dense astronomic phenomenon is a milestone for science and technology. On April 11th of 2019 the first ever picture of a black hole appeared on newspapers around the world. This important achievement required the collaboration of over 200 scientists from around the world. They were scattered across eight spatial observatories in different locations of the globe. Observations were made synchronized by atomic watches from eight specific locations: United States of America, Mexico, Chile, Spain and Antarctica.
What are Black holes?
Black holes are space regions where enormous amount of mass is concentrated and because of it its force of gravity traps all around it, even light. They originate when an elder star implodes due to its own density. In 1915 Albert Einstein predicted the formation of black holes in his Theory of General Relativity. Astronomers have been able to confirm their existence on numerous occasions because they can appreciate their gravitational effects.
Until April 2011 not one single person had ever seen one. For science, that image is an irrefutable confirmation of the theory and the beginning of a new technique to perfect the study of the universe
Strictly speaking, the black hole is still hidden. Because of its very definition it does not irradiate or project any light. Its shape cannot be seen directly. However, the gas being sucked into it reaches a temperature of millions of degrees and it emits photons that escape the gravity field and reach earth. That is the light that was capture by the photo. At its centre it is possible to determine a black circle, which is the silhouette of the black hole.
What do black hole do with everything they absorb?
Particle don´t just disappear, they move around it. To escape they must move faster than the speed of light.
Black holes constitute a frontier defined as the last orbit in which an electromagnetic wave, traveling at the speed of light, can come to us. Earth escape speed is 11 kilometres per second. A black hole has a magnetic gravity field much stronger than earth´s so, when being near it a speed much higher is needed to escape it. Specifically, to escape a black hole´s gravity field is needed a speed higher than the speed of light.
Now the main issue is that according to the Theory of relativity there is a limit and it is precisely that. To the known laws of physic there is nothing that travels faster that the speed of light.
So an object that is close to a black hole would not be sucked into it like a giant hoover would do. It would remain trapped in its gravity field without being able to escape it. Particles would remain moving around the black hole because they can´t travel faster than the speed of light.
Anything moving around a black hole will move in extreme orbits around it. So the object would change its shape. The effects of gravity over the object will be so strong that it would stretch turning into some kind of spaghetti.
Scientist believe that black holes are surrounded by threads of matter. This is of course a theory. There is no real data to confirm what happens near the gravity field of a black hole.
Until April 2019 the existence of black holes could not be proven by any image. With this picture the theory developed in 1915 is irrefutability confirmed.